It is also possible to apply for Dutch nationality (naturalisation) after five years of continuous lawful residence in the Netherlands. In certain cases, the application can be filed after just three years. Other than in case of a permanent residence permit, no income requirement applies in case of a naturalisation. A condition, however, is that the relevant person must have passed the civic integration examination. Moreover, a residence permit of a non-temporary nature or a permanent residence permit must be held at the time of the application. In many cases, one will have to renounce one’s original nationality after having acquired Dutch nationality.